Chronicle of war:

The Great Patriotic War Chronicle

1941

June, 22. Some minutes past 4 a.m. without declaring war the Nazis troops invaded the Soviet territory. They had 4.6 millions of military men, 190 divisions, over 4 thousands of tanks, more than 47 thousands of guns and mortars, about 5 thousands of airplanes, 200 ships. The group of Soviet troops numbered 2680 thousands of military men, 37.5 thousands of guns and mortars, 1475 new tanks and 1540 battle planes, and substantial quantity of tanks and planes of old construction. In some directions the enemy outnumbered the Soviet troops 3-4 times as much. During the first day the Soviet army retreated for about 50 km, Soviet aviation lost about 1200 planes.

During the first three weeks of war German troops had been fighting their ways into the central parts of the Soviet territory (20-30 km per day). Frontier guards were the first who took the first thrust upon themselves. The personnel of many frontier posts died. The whole country knew about the feat of frontier guards of the Brest fortress, who had been trying to keep back the enemy division for about a month. For total heroism and courage of Brest defenders, this town had been given the highest degree in decoration – a status of a Hero-Town.

By the middle of July Germans occupied Latvia, Lithuania, the west part of Ukraine, Belorussia. For total heroism of its defenders the capital of Belorussia Minsk was given a status of a Hero-City.

Starting August - the German offensive developed in three directions. On the North the aim of the offensive operations was the capture of Leningrad. The offensive in the central direction had as the final aim the destruction of Moscow, the capital of the country. On the South-East direction German headquarters had a plan to conquer Ukraine, Crimean Peninsula, and to go to Caucasus. In the shortest time German troops gained 400-500 km in the North-West direction, 450-600 km in the West direction, 300-350 km in the South-west direction.

Leningrad direction

July, 10 German offensive in the Leningrad direction starts. The German troops gradually began to tighten the ring round Leningrad.

In the end of August all the railroads, connecting Leningrad with the rest part of the country were blocked. Communication with the city was made through the Ladozhskoe Lake.

On September, 8th land communication of Leningrad with the country was blocked. The 900-day blockade of Leningrad started. On September there was accomplished one of the serious air raids of the enemy on Leningrad. 276 battle planes took part in that raid. During only one day the city was severely bombed.

Since November, 20th the starvation blockade started. It lasted till January, 1944. For total heroism of its defenders Leningrad was given a status of a Hero-City.

Moscow direction

In July, 10th the attack against Moscow began. German headquarters concentrated a half of its personnel, a one third of artillery means and 75% of tanks of the whole quantity of forces and military means on the Soviet-German front. In the way to Moscow there was Smolensk.

Since July, 10 till September, 10 the battle on the Smolenishche. The battle line 650 km long, and 250 km deep. The attack against Moscow was held up for two months.

In September, 30th the operation of the German headquarters “Taifun” began. The aim of the operation was to circle and to defeat the Soviet troops in the Moscow region. They planned to occupy the capital in 1941. Quickly inhabitants of Moscow began the building of several lines of defense. Factories were opened 24 hours. Workers provided defenders of the city with weapons and ammunition. By the end of October the enemy moved forward to Moscow and shortened the distance of 230-250 km.

In November, 7th the traditional parade on the Red Square in Moscow devoted to the 24th anniversary of the October Revolution took place. After parade military units were sent to the West front.

In November, 16th - The whole country knew about the feat of 28 heroes from the division of General I. V. Panfilov. They kept back the advancement to Moscow of a big tank group for 4 hours. Almost all of them died. Kolochkov’s words “Great Russia, we have no backing space!” became widely known.

From the end of November till December. The situation on Moscow front became critical. On the North German troops cut to the Moscwa-Volga Chanel. There was only 30 km to Moscow. On the South fierce battles took place not far from Tula. For total heroism of its defendant the town was given a status of a Hero-Town.

By December, 25th a threat of encirclement of Moscow from the North and South was liquidated. The battle of Moscow lasted till April, 20, 1942. for total heroism of defenders the city was given a status “Hero-City”. The total number of military men both German and Soviet was more than 3 million people, there were over 22 thousands of guns and mortars.

Till December, 22nd Nazis aviation made 122 air raids on Moscow. There were about 8 thousands of battle planes. But only 229 of them could break the defense.

South-east direction

In September, 19th After the one-and-a-half month battle the capital of Ukraine was left by the Soviet Army. For total heroism of its defenders the city was given a status of a Hero-City.

August, 5th - October, 16th is the period of the defence of Odessa which was deep in the enemy’s rear area. For total heroism of its defenders the city was given a status of a Hero-City. In October, 16th soldiers of the Red Army left the city.

By the end of November German troops captured almost the whole territory of Crimean Peninsula. Only sea-port Sevastopol remained undefeated. The defence of the city lasted 8 months. The city fell down on July, 4, 1942. for the total heroism of its defenders the city was given a status of a Hero-City.

In November for some days German troops had been occupying the Rostov-na-Donu town which was known to be a “key” to the North Caucasus.

By the end of the year the territory, occupied by the enemy, was more than 1.5 million sq. km. 74.5 million people lived on this territory at the pre-war times. On the occupied territory over 2 thousands of guerrilla detachments acted. In 1941 there were fights on the front of more than 1000 km long. Soviet Armed Forces lost over 5.3 million people. Among them were killed, captive, and missing.

1942

In 1942 The length of the Soviet-German front was already 6200 km. By August there concentrated the maximum of the enemy’s forces.

Leningrad direction

During the year Soviet Army had been making several attempts in breaking up Leningrad blockade. But it was not successful. Leningrad blockade would be broken only on January, 1944. Communication with the city was made only through the Ladozhskoe Lake. This road became known as a “Road of Life”. In winter it went on ice, in summer – on water-way.

Moscow direction

Since January, 8 till April there were final fights of Moscow. Soviet troops hurled back the enemy on 80-250 km from Moscow, completed liberation of Moscow and Tula regions. They released a lot of regions of Kalinin and Smolensk regions. From the beginning if the war till the end of March, 1942 there were dropped about 1600 high-explosive and about 100 incendiary bombs. There were killed over 1.2 million people and about 5.4 thousand were wounded. For the total heroism of the defenders of the city Moscow was given a status of a “Hero-City”. Over 36 thousand Soviet soldiers were medaled. 110 people were honoured with the title of a Hero of the Soviet Union. Over 1 million people were given medals for the defence of Moscow.

South direction

The main attack of German troops were delivered on the South direction. Since the beginning of the year till May, 8 the Soviet troops had been kept the place of arms on the South part of the occupied Crimean Peninsula. After the successful attack of Germans and capture of Kerch and Theodosia the Soviet troops were evacuated. Sevastopol and stone quarries near Kerch remained the stronghold of the resistance.

Since the middle of May till the end of October More than 10 thousand soldiers had been trying to keep the stone quarries near Kerch. For total heroism of its defenders Kerch was given a status of a Hero-Town.

In June, 30th after severe fights the Soviet troops left Sevastopol. Defence of the city lasted 250 days. Over 39 thousand people were rewarded with medals “For Defence of Sevastopol”. For total courage of defenders of Sevastopol the city was given a status of a Hero-City.

In May, 12th-29th Soviet army failed in liberation of Kharkov.

In June, 28th an offensive operation of German troops began. It developed in two main directions: to Stalingrad, situated on the Volga river, the main waterway of the European part of the country, and to the oil-fields of Caucasus.

Stalingrad battle

In July, 17th Stalingrad battle began. It covered the territory of 100 thousands sq. km and lasted 200 days. The number of both Soviet and German soldiers was more than 2 million people.

In the beginning of August German troops reached the nearest frontiers of Stalingrad. From the North it was only 60-70 km, from the South 20-30 km.

In August, 23 on one of the part of the front German military units came to the bank of Volga. For 48 hours they made about 2 thousands of air raids. As a result over 40 thousand people were killed, more than 150 thousands were wounded.

The end of August – the beginning of September German troops reached the frontiers of Stalingrad. It was only 2-10 km to the city.

In September severe street fightings in Stalingrad began.

In September, 26th in some parts of the city German troops reached Volga.

In September, 27th 3 soldiers headed by the sergeant Y. F. Pavlov occupied and were keeping the only survived building for 3 days. 25 soldiers defended it for 58 days and ended with the counter-offensive of the Soviet troops.

By the middle of November German troops possessed the majority of the territory of the city. From two parts of the city they went to the Volga river but they failed in forcing.

In November, 11th German troops made the last attempt to conquer Stalingrad.

Since November, 19 till February, 2 of the next year the counter-offensive of the Soviet troops developed on the Stalingrad front. As a result the German army was encircled. Total losses of the enemy in Stalingrad battle were 1.5 million people.

Battle Caucasus

Since the end of July till December, 31th the defence of Caucasus lasted. Ways in Transcaucasia went through the pass of the Main Caucasus mountain range and along the Black Sea. In both directions German troops were stopped.

In November, 9th after fierce three-day fights the Soviet army left the biggest part of Novorossiysk, situated on the Black Sea coast of Caucasus. It defended the city till the complete liberation in September, 1943. For the total courage of its defenders the city was given a status of a Hero-City.

1943

Leningrad direction

By the end of January the Soviet armies restored the overland communication of Leningrad with the rest part of the country having punched the Corridor in width of 8-11 kilometers along southern coast of Ladoga lake. Till those days the blockade city was connected with the country only by means of the so-called "Road of Life", passing in the winter on ice, and in the summer – on the waterway of Ladoga lake. For bravery and courage about 22 thousand soldiers were awarded by medals. 25 soldiers were awarded by ranks of a Hero of the Soviet Union.

Moscow direction

To the beginning of August the front line passed in 250-300 kilometers from Moscow.

From August, 7th till October, 2nd - during Smolensk operation - the Soviet armies had moved on the West on 200-250 kilometers.

On September, 25th the Soviet armies released Smolensk. During occupation and fights Hitlerites destroyed in Smolensk over 135 thousand citizens and prisoners of war, over 87 thousand were taken away to Germany. All the industrial enterprises, located in the city, were destroyed.

In the beginning of October the Soviet Army entered the east areas of Belarus.

On November, 25th the first regional centre of Belarus - the city of Gomel was released. During the occupation and fights Hitlerites killed in Gomel about 100 thousand citizens and prisoners of war.

Southern direction

Since November, 1942 till the beginning of March the Soviet armies passed on the West on 600-700 kilometers, having released the territory of more than 480 thousand sq. km.

By February, 4th the Soviet armies released a considerable part of Caucasus.

To the beginning of October with clearing of the city of Novorossiysk the fight for Caucasus had ended. The Soviet armies released territory measuring nearby 200 thousand sq. km. About 600 persons were medaled for the defence of Caucasus.

In January the Soviet armies crushed the Voronezh grouping of the German Armies.

In February the Soviet Armies released the city of Kursk. During occupation and fights Hitlerites shot 3 thousand peace inhabitants, 10 thousand died from epidemic and hunger, 10 thousand were taken away for work to Germany.

In February, 9th the Soviet armies released Belgorod.

In February, 14th the Soviet armies released Rostov-on-Don. In time of occupation and fights Hitlerites killed 40 thousand peace inhabitants, 53 thousand were sent for work to Germany, all industrial enterprises were destroyed.

In March, as a result of German counterattack, some areas of Donbas were released by the Soviet armies, and cities of Kharkov and Belgorod as well. The Soviet armies receded on 100-150 km.

Kursk fight

From July, 5th till August, 24th Kursk fight lasted which had attracted attention of the whole world. More than 4 million persons participated in it. There were more than 69 thousand tools and mortars, more than 13 thousand tanks and self-propelled tools and almost 12 thousand battle planes.

In July, 12th not far from Prokhorovka – the village known to very few people - the largest counter tank battle of the Second World War took place. From both sides there were about 1200 tanks and self-propelled tools.
During one of the battle the enemy lost over 10 thousand persons, about 400 tanks. As a result it was not possible for German armies to grasp Kursk from the South.

In July-August the Soviet armies began an offensive operation from Kursk in two directions: on the north - on a town of Oryol and on the south - on the towns of Belgorod and Kharkov. In the sky over the Kursk and Oryol the senior Lieutenant A.P.Maresev became famous for his feat. In spite of amputation of his feet, he continued to make air raids. He was given the rank of a Hero of the Soviet Union.

In August, 5th the Soviet armies released cities the Oryol and Belgorod. In time of occupation and fights in Oryol Hitlerites killed over 11 thousand peace inhabitants, over 20 thousand people were sent for work to Germany.

In August, 24th the Soviet armies released Kharkov. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed in the town and its surroundings nearby 300 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war, about 160 thousand were taken away to Germany. In Moscow in honour of liberators of Kharkov the salute had been
given. For the courage shown in Kursk fight, over 100 thousand Soviet soldiers, officers and generals were awarded by awards and medals. 180 persons were given the rank of a Hero of the Soviet Union.

By the second half of September the Soviet armies released Donbas - the main coal metallurgical base of the European part of the country. In time if occupations of the main city of Donbas Hitlerites killed over 167 thousand peace inhabitants.

By September the Soviet armies released almost the whole territory of Eastern Ukraine and came to the left coast of the river Dnepr.

In November, 6th the Soviet armies released the capital of the Ukrainian Republic -
Kiev. During German occupation of the city there had been shot more than 195 thousand Soviet citizens. Over 100 thousand persons were taken away to Germany.

In December, 22nd fight for Dnepr came to the end. The Soviet armies forced Dnepr and became stronger on its right coast.

1944

Liberation of Russia

In January, 20th the Soviet armies released Novgorod. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed 201 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war. By the moment of liberation 30 inhabitants were killed.

In January, 27th the blockade of Leningrad, begun in September, 1941, was finally raised. For courage, firmness and unprecedented heroism of defenders of the city Leningrad were given the rank "Hero City". During blockade in Leningrad over 640 thousand persons died from hunger, tens of thousands of the exhausted citizens died during evacuation. 17 thousand inhabitants of Leningrad were lost, nearby 34 thousand were wounded in artillery bombardments.

In July, 23rd Pskov was released. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed over 290 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war. Over 11 thousand persons were taken in a captivity.

In July, 28th the city of Brest was released. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed in Brest 84 thousand peace inhabitants.

By the middle of summer the Soviet armies released from the enemy the occupied areas of the Russian Republic. During occupation Hitlerites killed 1,8 million persons, 1,3 million people were taken away to Germany. Hundreds cities, about 3 million buildings were destroyed. 11 million persons lost their roof over the head.

Liberation of Ukraine

In January-February as a result of approach of the Soviet armies the German Armies suffered a number of large defeats in territory of Ukraine. German Armies were rejected on 80-350 km from Dnepr.

In April, 10th Odessa was released. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed 82 thousand peace inhabitants and 78 thousand persons were taken away to Germany.

From April, 8th till April, 13th, 1944 there were fights for Crimea.

In April, 11th the Soviet armies released Kerch.

In May, 9th Sevastopol was released. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed 27 thousand peace inhabitants, 42 thousand were taken away to Germany. By the moment of liberation of Sevastopol there were only 3 thousand inhabitants. The city was completely destroyed.

By the end of August liberation of the Ukrainian Republic was finished. For courage in fights over 123 thousand soldiers were awarded by medals, 160 people were given ranks of a Hero of the Soviet Union. For years of occupation Hitlerites have killed in Ukraine over 5 million persons (over 3,8 million peace inhabitants and about 1,5 million prisoners of war), 2,4 million people were taken away to Germany.

Liberation of the Moldavian Republic

By the end of August liberation of the Moldavian Republic was finished. The capital of Moldova - Kishinev was released. During occupation fascists killed in Moldova 64 thousand persons, 47 thousand were taken away for hard labour. Over 207 thousand peace citizens were subjected to tortures.

Liberation of Belarus

In June, 26th the Belarus city of Vitebsk was released. During occupation and fight Hitlerites killed about 140 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war. Almost the whole city was destroyed.

In July, 3rd the Soviet armies released the capital of Belarus - Minsk.

In time of occupation and fights Hitlerites destroyed over 400 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war.

From June, 23rd till August, 29th the Belarus operation proceeded. It captured huge territory - to 1100 km on front and 600 km in depth. Belarus was completely released from German armies. For years of occupation Hitlerites killed in Belarus over 2 million 200 thousand persons (over 1,4 million peace inhabitants and 800 thousand prisoners of war), about 380 thousand persons were taken away to Germany. 209 cities and regional centres were transformed into ruins, 9200 villages were burnt. Nearby 34 million persons remained without a roof over the head.

Liberation of Baltic Republics

In July, 13th the Soviet armies released the capital of the Lithuanian Republic - Vilnius. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed over 100 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war.

In October, 13th the Soviet armies finished the liberation operation of the capital of the Latvian Republics - Riga. During occupation and fights Hitlerites killed over 300 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war. Over 75 thousands were taken to Germany.

By October, 22nd the whole territory of the Latvian Republic was practically released.

In September, 22nd the Soviet armies released the capital of Estonia - Tallinn. For time of occupation and fights Hitlerites killed over 125 thousand peace inhabitants and prisoners of war.

By November, 24th the Soviet armies finished liberation operations of the Baltic Republics.

 

Liberation of countries of Eastern Europe:

Romania

In March, 26th the Soviet armies left on border with Romania.

In August, 31st the Soviet armies entered Bucharest.

By October the territory of Romania was completely released.

Yugoslavia

By September, 6th the Soviet armies came to the Romanian -Yugoslavian border.

In October, 20th soldiers of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia released the capital of Yugoslavia - Belgrade. For merits in fights over 2 thousand Yugoslavian soldiers were awarded by medals, 12 people were given a rank of the National Hero of Yugoslavia.

By October, 20th the Soviet and Yugoslavian armies released the territory Serbia.

Hungary

In September, 22nd the Soviet armies came to the Romanian - Hungarian border.

From October, 6th till October, 28th during Debretsensky operation one third of the territory of Hungary were released.

From October, 29th till December, 9th the Soviet armies with the

assistance of the Hungarian volunteers were conducted by the fights for liberation of Budapest.

In December, 31st street fights in Budapest had begun.

Poland

In July, 20th the Soviet armies had entered the territory of Poland. By the middle of September the Soviet armies came to the right coast of Vistula and suburbs of Warsaw.

Bulgaria

In September, 8th the Soviet armies entered the territory of Bulgaria.

In September, 15th the Soviet armies in full accord with the government of Bulgaria on the Domestic front entered Sofia.

Czechoslovakia

In October, 6th the Soviet armies together with the soldiers of the 1st Czechoslovak army corps entered the territory of Czechoslovakia.

By October, 28th the Soviet armies released a part of East Slovakia.

1945

To the beginning of 1945 structure, technical equipment and arms of the Soviet Armies had reached the highest point. On the Soviet-German front the Soviet Army had 6,7 million persons, 107,3 thousand tools and mortars of 12,1 thousand tanks and self-propelled artillery, 14,7 thousand warplanes.

In the middle of January the Soviet armies developed powerful attack on the front from Baltic Sea to Danube.

Vistula-Oder operation

To the beginning of 1945 Nazi command has created a powerful defence between Vistula and Oder consisting of seven boundaries and a considerable quantity of strips and positions. The main forces of groups of armies "A" kept the defence on the front from Warsaw to Jaslo. They included up to 560 thousand soldiers and

officers, nearby 5 thousand tools and mortars, 1220 tanks and assault tools. A Group of armies were supported by 630 warplanes. It has been settled to split grouping of the enemy by means of the powerful face-to-face blows, first of all tank armies, then to defeat the main forces of the Army “A” and then to release Poland.

Armies should come in the high rates, anticipating the opponent in capture of the next defensive

boundaries. These actions of armies are known as Hung-Oder operation.

In the morning on January, 12th Vistula-Oder operation began. The beginning of the attack was supposed to take place not earlier in than January, 20th. However this term had to be changed, as on December, 16th German command stroke a blow on to American-English connections in Ardennes. The heavy situation appeared for allies of the USSR. The Prime minister of the Great Britain U. Churchill addressed to the head of the Soviet government Stalin for the help. The Soviet armies opened storm fire on the enemy. German armies, aspiring to avoid an encirclement, begun to recede.

Since January, 16th prosecution of the German army was developed on the 250-kilometre strip of front. For six days the army passed with fights on the West of 150 km, forcing the river Varta.

In January, 17th the Soviet armies released cities of Radomsko and Chenstohava. It was the tank battalion under command of S. V. Khokhryakov who was the first to rush in Chenstohava. For resolute actions and personal bravery major Khokhryakov was awarded by the second Gold Star of a Hero of the Soviet Union.

In January, 17th the Soviet armies released the capital of Poland - Warsaw. In Commemoration of liberation of the capital of Poland according to the Decree of Presidium Supreme Council of the USSR more than 682 thousand Soviet and Polish soldiers were awarded with the medal "For clearing of Warsaw".

In January, 18th in the region of Shidlovets the Germans met the armies of the1st Ukrainian and the 1st Belarus front. As a result the Soviet armies attacked the enemy at the front over 500 km, and the defence of German armies on Vistula failed. The enemy group of armies "A" suffered heavy defeat. The Soviet army promptly moved to borders of Germany.

In January, 19th the advanced parts of front entered Germany.

By the end of January the Soviet armies came to Oder, forcing it grasped the place of arms to the north and to the south of Kerstin. Those days have become famous the feat of tank men of the 44th Guards tank brigade coming in advance party of 11th Guards tank corps. The brigade has overtaken the receding fascist parts, came to a strong point of the Mezerittssky strengthened area, not expecting the approach of the main forces corps, and broke the defence of the enemy, came into in its back, and grasped the base on Oder. For the shown heroism and resource the whole brigade staff were awarded by government awards, 11 soldiers were given a rank of a Hero of the Soviet Union, and the commander of a brigade Colonel I. I.Gusakovsky received the second medal "Gold Star". For 23 Days of attacks the defence between Vistula and Oder was broken. Hung-Oder operation had the important military political value. The Soviet armies with the assistance of the 1st army of Poland and the guerrillas released the considerable territory of Poland. War fire was threw on territory of Germany also blazed in 60 km from its capital - Berlin. The enemy had huge losses: 35 divisions were destroyed, and 25 lost from 50 to 70 % of the structure. Hitlerite command had to throw 29 divisions and 4 brigades against the Soviet armies coming from other directions of the Soviet-German front, from internal areas of Germany and from the Western front. So, the Soviet Army helped its the allies...

East Prussian operation

In East Prussia the powerful defence was made of Ferro-concrete constructions. Only in strengthened Hejlsberg region there were more than 900 long-term defensive works. Strengthening was covered with anti-tank ditches and posts. Grouping of the enemy consisted of 45 divisions. It had 580 thousand soldiers and officers, 8200 tools and mortars, about 700 tanks and assault tools. In defence of East Prussia there has been involved about 200 thousand Volkssturms . Land forces supported 775 warplanes. To the beginning of the attack the Soviet armies had 1669 thousand persons, 25 426 tools and mortars, 3859 tanks and self-propelled artillery installations, 3097 warplanes.

In January, 13th the Soviet armies passed to the offensive. Over a battle field there was a dense, dense fog. The enemy taking this opportunity let the infantry and tanks to come very close, fired at them, passed in counterattacks. It slowed down the advancement. However force of blow of the Soviet armies continuously raised.

In January, 21st Gumbinen was released, and the next day armies seized Insterburg. It was necessary to take Gumbinen in fierce fights. The enemy persistently resisted. Its defeat near Insterburg opened the road to Konigsberg and compelled German armies to depart from the region of the Masuria lakes. The Soviet army passed to prosecution.

In February, 10th liquidation of grouping of the enemy, pressed to a gulf on the West of Konigsberg, began. The 38-year-old commander of front general I. D.Chernjahovsky has shown during these days the exclusive energy and bravery

In February, 18th in the field of fight in the region of Melzak general I. D.Chernjahovsky was mortally wounded. The glorified general was buried in Vilnius.

In March, 29th to the south-west from Konigsberg the German troops were defeated. The struggle against this grouping lasted 48 days. On April, 6th storm Кенигсберга began.

In April, 9th the German armies defending Konigsberg, surrendered.

From April, 13 till April, 25th remained from the East Prussian German grouping forces concentrated on the Zemlandsky peninsula, were crushed by the Soviet armies. Aircraft, ships, and submarines of the Baltic fleet actively helped the land forces. During the East Prussian operation there were crushed more than 25 enemy divisions. 12 divisions lost from 50 to 75 % of their structure. The Soviet Army occupied the territory of East Prussia and released considerable territory of the Northern part of Poland.

Karpatsko-Prague direction

In first half of January from a boundary of the rivers Vistula and Ondawa the Soviet armies passed to the offensive. In southern areas of Slovakia military operations were also renewed. Armies had to move ahead in heavy conditions of severe winter and mountain-woody district.

In January-February southern areas of Poland and considerable part of Slovakia were released.

By the end of February the Soviet armies came to headwaters of Vistula and fastened fights on approaches to Moravsko-Ostravsky industrial region, Conducted fights on the western slopes of Slovak Ore deposits on river Gron.

In March, 25th the Soviet armies stroke the first blows to the enemy to the north of Danube. Having forced suddenly the river Gron, they directed on the West. One after another regions of Czechoslovakia were released.

In April, 4th the Soviet soldiers released the capital of Slovakia - Bratislava. Continuing the offensive, they released Brno.

From Budapest to Vienna

Since December, 26th, 1944 the Soviet armies had been developing fights on destruction of the grouping of the enemy surrounded near Budapest. The basic forces conducted battles on external front of an environment, and the part of the Soviet armies turned the Front on the east, against the defenders in the western part of a city Bude. German command ordered the Budapest garrison to defend a city until last soldier would die, hoping by means of blows from the outside to break off the front of an environment and to restore the defence across Danube. In order to reach this purpose, the enemy put three counterstrokes. More than a month the bloody fights to the west of Budapest had been taking place.

In February, 13th the capital of Hungary was released. Large forces of the enemy, trying to be pulled out from an environment, were destroyed the very. More than 350 thousand participants of fights were awarded with medals. Many Parts and connections received names of Budapest. Together with The Soviet armies in fights for Budapest Romanian Corps took part.

In March, 6th counterattack of German armies began. A fascist management wanted to reject, at any price, the Soviet armies for Danube and to reserve areas to the south of Vienna and to the west of the lake Balaton, rich in oil. German command concentrated large forces to the south-west direction of Budapest. From the western Germany and Italy tank and infantry divisions had been thrown. From the Western front there arrived the 6th tank army SS.

In March, 15th the enemy offensive was stopped. The enemy tanks failed in passing to not Danube.

In March, 16th the Viennese operation began. The German army had to recede.

Since March, 25th the Soviet armies continued the prosecution of the enemy.

In April, 4th the Soviet Army finished the liberation operation of territory of Hungary. Later in commemoration of this event by the Decree of Presidium Hungarian National Republic this day was declared as a national holiday of the Hungarian people. More than 140 thousand Soviet soldiers and officers gave their life for liberation of Hungary.

In April, 13th the Soviet armies have completely cleared Vienna of Hitlerites. It was the sixth European capital released by the Soviet Army. Connections and the parts which have caused a stir in fights for the city, received the name The Viennese. The presidium of the Supreme body of the USSR has founded a medal "For a capture Veins ", having awarded with it more than 270 thousand soldiers. Over 26 thousand Soviet soldiers died in fights, releasing Austria from fascism.

 



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